Only counting CO2, not the other greenhouse gases
Carbon dioxide is not the only greenhouse gas; the most important others are methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). Methane has about 84 times the climate warming effect that CO2 does in the first twenty years (after 20 years the majority is converted to CO2), a major issue as the climate moves toward possible positive-feedback tipping points. Over a hundred year period CH4 has a warming impact 34 times that of CO2. Nitrous Oxide has about 300 times the warming impact of CO2 and has an atmospheric lifespan of over 100 years . Continue reading
At some point within the next decade or so the major nations of the world must start to make substantive progress in cutting the usage of fossil fuels. A major focus of such efforts would have to be within the transportation sector, which relies predominantly on oil as a fuel. The logical result would be that global demand for oil would start to fall year after year, creating a long-term downward pressure on oil prices.
With the decline in demand being a secular issue, rather than a short-term one, the viability of the highest cost operations would be fundamentally undermined. There would be no reason for producers to accept short-term losses in the hope of a later pick up in prices. A rational business option may be to walk away from currently unprofitable operations, and limit losses through declaring local operations bankrupt. Continue reading
I have been reading an excellent book by Jeffrey Winters, “Oligarchy”, which traces the history of oligarchs. By oligarchs, he means those with extreme levels of personal wealth that allow them to fundamentally affect a nation’s affairs. They both have an overriding need to defend that wealth and have the unique power resources for such a defence. As he puts it succinctly “this … helps explain why those most able to pay are also the ones most empowered to avoid doing so, and why ordinary democratic participation is an ineffective antidote.” Oligarchs are different to the political, business and military elites that may enjoy power through their positions, but may not have anywhere near an oligarchic level of wealth (although especially in the United States many senior executives have managed to amass oligarchic-style wealth). He identifies a U.S. oligarchy of the top 150,000 households (the 0.01%), which possessed an average income of $4 million per year in 2004. Even within this number there is a great concentration, the top 15,000 had an average income of $27 million, and the top 400, $345 million. Given the continuing outsized growth in the incomes and wealth of the rich since 2004, and the static incomes and wealth of the rest, their relative position can only have been enhanced further. Continue reading
The beginning of the Anthropocene, the period when humanity became the predominant driver of changes in the Earth Systems, has been open to debate. Some argue for the period of the post-WW2 Great Acceleration, others for the beginning of industrialization, and some would perhaps go back as far as the European conquest and colonization of the rest of the world. What few seem to grasp is that the Anthropocene may last but a few decades, until the Earth responds like a boulder rolling down a hill. Humanity provided the push that overcame its inertia, but once in motion it accelerates away all by itself. Continue reading
Prior to the start of the Second World War, my grandfather ran a successful newsagent shop. Most of his profits came from selling sweets (‘candies’ for those in North America) to fill the voracious English appetite for tooth-rotting pleasures. Along came the war, and rationing. With a desperate need to feed the population in the face of the sinking of merchant ships in the Atlantic, sweets were just not a priority and the supply rapidly dwindled. My grandfather gave up his shop and became a printer for the newspaper industry. At no time did he think of claiming damages from the government for his “lost hypothetical future profits”. There was a war to fight and everyone had to make sacrifices, including him. Additionally, it was accepted that the sovereign government had the right to make such choices for the good of the country. Continue reading
There has been a lot of talk in the past few years about the remaining carbon budget. This is the amount of additional carbon dioxide that we can emit into the atmosphere that will give us a 66% chance of not triggering a “dangerous” increase in global temperatures of over 20C (450 ppm of atmospheric CO2). Yes, this is for only a “2 out of 3” chance of saving human society. At higher percentages, say 90%, there is no remaining budget. Continue reading
China accounts for more than half of global coal consumption, with the majority of that consumption within an electricity-generating sector that produces 73% of its power from coal. In 2015, China’s coal production was 1.83 billion tons, compared to 455 million tons in the United States. China’s recent focus on non-fossil energy sources has led to a short-term peaking of coal usage, but its current 5-year plan envisages a 19% increase in coal generation capacity. Renewables alone simply cannot provide the amounts of additional electricity production required to support the country’s rapid economic growth. This additional coal usage will be exacerbated by the rapid growth in countries such as India (407 tons) and Indonesia (147 tons) – both of which are rapidly expanding coal usage as they drive industrialization (India’s coal-fired generation capacity will have more than doubled in the decade up to 2022). Japan’s reduction in fossil fuel usage will only offset a small part of these increases. The most recent draft plans from India may produce a peak in fossil fuel usage by the mid to late 2020’s, but no such plans exist for Indonesia. Continue reading
Taking into account fugitive methane emissions from the production and distribution of natural gas, the U.S. electricity-generating sector may not reduce overall climate-warming emissions at all during the foreseeable future. Nor has it in the previous decade, as claimed by the U.S. government. With Canada already generating 84% of its electricity from renewables and nuclear, it can only play a small part in reducing overall North American emissions. Especially when the U.S. produces eight times the amount of electricity. Mexico may significantly increase its share of renewable and nuclear sourced electricity, but overall growth in electricity demand will mean that this will not reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
Unless fugitive methane emissions throughout the natural gas production and distribution network can be significantly reduced, the North American electricity-generating sector may not provide any reductions in climate-warming emissions. Given that this sector has been at the forefront of emission reduction efforts, this does not bode well for any real reductions in greenhouse gas emissions – when measured on a CO2 equivalent basis (incorporating other greenhouse gases) rather than just a CO2 basis. Continue reading
Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, the U.S.-led liberal international order has made incredible gains in Europe:
- East Germany taken over by the capitalist West Germany
- Yugoslavia broken up, with Croatia and Slovenia joining the European Union and NATO
- The ex-Warsaw Pact countries of Poland, Bulgaria, Romania, Hungary, the Czech Republic and Slovakia integrated into the European Union and NATO. Albania added to NATO
- The ex-Soviet Baltic Republics of Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia joining the European Union and NATO
The dreams of turning Russia itself into a U.S. dominated capitalist playground may have been derailed by the Putin leadership, but the gains made have still been on a level that could not have been dreamt of in the mid-1980’s. In this context, the western-supported coup in the Ukraine can be seen as an overly risky act of hubris that gave Russia no option but to respond. After all the Ukraine has an extensive border with Russia, a large ethnic-Russian population, control over a large percentage of Russia’s gas exports, and housed the Black Fleet naval base. A parallel would have been a Russian-supported coup in Canada or Mexico. One can easily assume what the U.S. response would be to such an action. The attempt at regime change in the country housing Russia’s only military base in the Middle East, Syria, was also always going to run a high risk of Russian intervention. Perhaps a strategic retreat may be the best policy, especially if other objectives are of a higher priority. Continue reading
Western Europe and Scandinavia have been held up as leaders in moving to a low-carbon future in electricity generation, but the reality is very mixed. Scandinavia benefits from its large hydroelectric resources, relative to population size, and therefore has a very low electricity carbon footprint. France is low carbon due to its predominantly nuclear-based generating capacity.
With the expansion of Germany’s renewables going toward the retirement of its nuclear generating capacity post-Fukushima, there has been relatively little impact on the 50%+ share of fossil fuels (44% from hard coal and lignite), and its carbon emissions have not been reduced in the past 6 years. Together with other European countries such as Italy (fossil fuel share of 50%) and Spain (30%), there has also been a significant reduction in government support for renewables growth as the percentage share of renewable generation has increased. Continue reading